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Spheroidal graphite cast iron - in which industries is it needed?
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Spheroidal graphite cast iron - in which industries is it needed?

Cast irons are a group of ferrous alloys that have a large number of properties and have above 2% carbon. In these cases the carbon does not dissolve completely in the iron and solidifies in the form of graphite or iron carbide. One of the types is spheroidal graphite cast iron or nodular cast iron.

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Benefits of graphite's dielectric properties
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Benefits of graphite's dielectric properties

Dielectric materials are those materials that have low electrical conductivity, in other words, insulating materials electrical conductivity, in other words, insulating materials that also have the particularity of forming systems of two charges of opposite sign and equal magnitude in their magnitude in their interior, this under an electric field. Graphite is a dielectric dielectric material, for which we will further elaborate on the subject.

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Crystalline flake graphite: utilization and impact in the industry
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Crystalline flake graphite: utilization and impact in the industry

Graphite is a mineral that can be obtained naturally but also artificially. artificially. It is one of the most stable allotropic forms of carbon and has a wide range of industrial uses. It is one of the most stable allotropic forms of carbon and has a wide range of applications due to its characteristics.

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Characteristics and uses of the mineral graphite
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Characteristics and uses of the mineral graphite

Graphite is one of the allotropic forms of carbon, as are coal and diamond. Although this mineral can be extracted naturally from mines located mainly in China, India and Brazil, it can also be produced artificially. In this article we will review what are the main uses of mineral graphite.

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Graphite grease: composition and applications
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Graphite grease: composition and applications

Broadly speaking, graphite grease is a lubricant with a high percentage of graphite that makes it the ideal solution for lubricating mechanisms or equipment where greasing is not required so frequently, with a high level of friction or where there is difficulty in accessing grease fittings.

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Where to buy graphitized grease in Monterrey?
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Where to buy graphitized grease in Monterrey?

Graphitized grease is made with calcium soaps, highly refined minerals and a high percentage of graphite, which in turn gives the highly lubricating properties of graphite. Furthermore it offer an effective coating, mechanical stability, etc.

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Find out what graphite is composed of and what it is used for
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Find out what graphite is composed of and what it is used for

Graphite is one of the natural forms in which carbon occurs in nature, it is considered an almost pure carbon mineral. It is important that we talk about what graphite is composed of, an indispensable material for industry.

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Is graphite a metal or non-metal? Know its characteristics
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Is graphite a metal or non-metal? Know its characteristics

Graphite is considered a non-metal with semi-metallic properties, so, to be used in the manufacture of conductors in electric motors, for example, a compound of graphite intercalated with calcium, sodium or potassium is created to obtain superconducting materials.

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Impact and applications of graphite
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Impact and applications of graphite

The structure of graphite is made up of layers of hexagons with 6 atoms each, figures that are linked together by covalent double bonds and, in turn, form overlapping sheets with weak bonds that make it a soft material and easily peeled off in sheets.

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Graphite: Conductive or insulating ? Find out here
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Graphite: Conductive or insulating ? Find out here

Unlike diamond, graphite is a great conductor of electricity and the reason for this lies in the bonds of its atoms. The atoms that make up graphite are arranged in hexagonal structures that in turn form networks that are held together.

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Graphite suspension paints and its main uses
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Graphite suspension paints and its main uses

Graphite suspension paints or suspension paint-type lubricants are widely used to create a graphite lubricating coating resistant to weathering and elevated operating temperatures. It replaces greases and oils offering clean lubrication without the adhesion of dust, dirt or chips.

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Applications of expanded graphite for industry
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Applications of expanded graphite for industry

Graphite is one of the allotropic forms of carbon and to obtain expanded graphite purified graphite flakes are exposed to a process called exfoliation The graphite exfoliation process consists of the expansion of crystalline graphite flakes by contact with sulfuric acid, thus forming a worm-shaped flake expansion.

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What are electric motor brushes?
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What are electric motor brushes?

Brushes for electric motors are indispensable for their operation. Carbon brushes are used to make the electrical connection between the rotor of an electric motor (the rotating part) and the stationary part.

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Importance of lamellar graphite cast iron in the industry
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Importance of lamellar graphite cast iron in the industry

Lamellar graphite cast iron is characterized by easy heat dissipation, so it is commonly used to create blow molds, cooling cavities, baffles, blow heads, plungers, neck rings and many other supplies.

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How graphite components contribute to the glass industry
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How graphite components contribute to the glass industry

Due to the hexagonal structure of the carbon atoms within graphite, this material possesses high electrical conductivity, thermal shock resistance and offers self-lubricating properties, characteristics that make it essential in the glass industry.

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Do you know what motor brushes are? Find out here!
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Do you know what motor brushes are? Find out here!

Motor carbons or brushes are the electrical connection between the fixed part and the rotating part of a motor or electric generator. That is to say, it joins the fixed part with the rotor coils. Know why they are made of graphite.

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Natural carbons: what they are and what they are used for
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Natural carbons: what they are and what they are used for

Carbon is one of the most abundant elements on the planet. It is indispensable for the existence of organic living matter and is responsible for approximately 40% of the electrical energy generated. In nature, in its pure state, we can find different types of natural carbons.

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Advantages of mineral carbon in its various presentations
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Advantages of mineral carbon in its various presentations

Mineral carbon, a sedimentary rock very rich in carbon, black in color and mainly used as a fossil fuel. It is a derivative of carbon and due to its abundance in nature, as well as its characteristics and properties, it is widely used in industry, so the advantages of mineral mineral carbon end up being endless.

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Carbron products: key to improve industrial processes
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Carbron products: key to improve industrial processes

Carbon is one of the main elements of which the living organic matter of the planet is composed. From it derives coal, a sedimentary rock very rich in carbon, black in color and which is mainly used as a fossil fuel as part of coal-derived products.

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20 products derived from carbon for industrial use
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20 products derived from carbon for industrial use

Carbon is the second most abundant element in the human body and is one of the elements that makes up 96% of the organic living matter on our planet. In addition, it is necessary for any type of combustion and is essential for the alloying of steels. Therefore, we share with you the 20 products derived from carbon that you can implement.

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Carbon and graphite for industrial use in Monterrey
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Carbon and graphite for industrial use in Monterrey

Generally, coal is considered as coke -either petroleum coke, calcined needle coke, green coke or metallurgical coke- and anthracite. On the other hand, natural graphite -crystalline, amorphous and seam graphite- as well as synthetic graphite -either mixtures of pitch, tar and other additives that are carbonized and graphitized in furnaces- are classified as graphite.

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Use of graphite in different industries
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Use of graphite in different industries

Graphite is one of the allotropic forms of carbon. It is a soft metallic black mineral and due to its properties the use of graphite in different industries is nowadays very common.

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Flexible graphite gaskets: uses
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Flexible graphite gaskets: uses

Graphite gaskets are composed of expanded or flexible pure graphite flakes that are mechanically bonded together. It is thanks to this high compressibility of graphite that the gaskets can easily adapt to sealing surfaces, even if they have imperfections, and even compensate for misalignments without affecting sealing capacity.

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Carbon Nanotubes: what are they and what are they used for
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Carbon Nanotubes: what are they and what are they used for

Carbon nanotubes, or carbon nanotubes in English, are the new material of the future because they are extremely strong and lightweight, as well as being of the future because they are extremely strong and lightweight, and have an excellent ability to conduct electricity. they have an excellent ability to conduct electricity.

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Graphite packing and how it is developed
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Graphite packing and how it is developed

The most frequently used types of packing are braided packing made of mineral and synthetic fibers, the most common materials being asbestos fibers, PTFE, expanded graphite, carbon fibers, aramids, etc. However, graphite packing stands out due to its characteristics and the advantages it offers.

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Properties of carbon fiber weaves and twills
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Properties of carbon fiber weaves and twills

Carbon fiber is manufactured by carbonizing and graphitizing polyacrylnitril fibers, petroleum residues or rayon at suitable temperatures to obtain fibers between 7 and 8 microns in diameter. In other words, carbon fibers are derived from different sources. Once carbonization is achieved, most of the non-carbon atoms are expelled and long chains of intertwined carbon atoms remain.

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Carbon fiber sheet for the automotive industry
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Carbon fiber sheet for the automotive industry

Carbon fiber is manufactured from carbon microfibers which are intertwined to form a kind of stamen called rovings of different gauges. The calibers are classified according to the number of filaments contained. These range from 3 thousand, 6 thousand to rovings of 24 or 48 thousand filaments, in the world the technical carbon fiber sheet is known as 3k, 6k, etc. rovings.

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Importance and applications of graphitized yarn
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Importance and applications of graphitized yarn

Fibers, whether synthetic or natural, are subjected to carbonization and graphitization processes, similar to those of carbon fiber, to obtain graphitized yarns with properties such as resistance to high temperatures, high pressures, low coefficient of friction and thermal expansion, etc. However, carbon or graphite fiber yarns are also used.

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Graphitized yarns: uses, applications and importance in the industry
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Graphitized yarns: uses, applications and importance in the industry

Due to its resistance to temperature, as well as to chemicals and substances, graphite is one of the most widely used materials in the production of dynamically applied packing. The graphitized cord is also known as packing or braided packing, as it receives its name according to its manufacturing process.

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Advantages of graphite spray for locks
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Advantages of graphite spray for locks

One of the problems with using any type of grease to lubricate a lock is that it will retain dust and eventually jam the mechanism even more. That is why the recommended and most commonly used option is to apply a spray of graphite powder from time to time as a lubrication.

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Mechanical seals for pumps: description, uses and types
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Mechanical seals for pumps: description, uses and types

In mechanisms or systems such as pumps, a mechanical seal is a composite part that helps to join a fixed part with a mobile part under pressure to close hermetically and to couple. This prevents leaks or drips that would imply a deterioration in the seals and, consequently, continuous stoppages in the pumping system.

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Applications of carbon fiber in the medical industry
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Applications of carbon fiber in the medical industry

In general, this material is combined with other polymers to form fiber-reinforced composites, which gives rigidity to the polymers used in the final part. When carbon fiber is added with plastic resin, the result is a fibrocarbon that has high strength to weight and is extremely stiff.

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Petrochemicals: the role of graphite in petrochemical processes
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Petrochemicals: the role of graphite in petrochemical processes

Petrochemical products are obtained after the transformation of petroleum and natural gas. Some of the products obtained from petrochemicals are different gases, petroleum, benzene, ethylene, among many others.

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Types of industrial lubricants and suspensions made of graphite
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Types of industrial lubricants and suspensions made of graphite

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Characteristics of graphite that make it indispensable in industries
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Characteristics of graphite that make it indispensable in industries

Graphite is one of the allotropic forms of carbon and a fairly common mineral. It consists of carbon atoms in hexagonal structures that form layers. Due to its characteristics and properties, this material is widely used in the industrial sector.

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Graphite lubricant for tortilla machines
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Graphite lubricant for tortilla machines

Tortillerías play a vital role in Mexico, the United States and other Latin American countries, as their product is the staple food of the Mexican population. The graphite tortilleria lubricant stands out for the special properties of the mineral, as it is neutral and non-toxic.

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Graphite and the process of lubricant application in heavy machinery
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Graphite and the process of lubricant application in heavy machinery

The different types of lubricants for machinery also add to the operation process of a wide variety of machines, since they must be focused on the type of action and wear they will have. For this reason, we explain below what the lubrication process is, the types that exist and their advantages.

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What is graphite used for?
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What is graphite used for?

At constant atmospheric temperature and pressure, graphite is the most stable allotropic form of carbon. You've probably heard that the pencil leads we use in school are made of graphite, but this is just one of the many applications of this material.

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Uses of carbon fiber to apply in your industry
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Uses of carbon fiber to apply in your industry

Carbon fiber has several uses and qualities that make it a highly demanded material. These characteristics allow to exploit its properties according to the application that will be given to it.

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Carbon fiber, production process and industrial applications
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Carbon fiber, production process and industrial applications

Carbon fibers are raw material for the manufacture of a wide range of objects for multiple industries. On this occasion we will explain the most relevant and well-known applications of this material.

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Bearing grease added with graphite
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Bearing grease added with graphite

Some of the benefits of these greases are that they seal bearings against the ingress of contaminants from the outside. Particularly when operating in humid environments. In addition, good anti-rust and anti-rust levels are achieved.

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Graphite furnace: main uses in instrumental equipment
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Graphite furnace: main uses in instrumental equipment

The graphite furnace, very useful for working with small samples at the atomic level, is used to measure metals in some products, determining the type of mineral that each piece contains and increasing the sensitivity in each.

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Electrical Conductivity: Graphite as an excellent electrical conductor
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Electrical Conductivity: Graphite as an excellent electrical conductor

Graphite is a key element for electrical conductivity because it resists corrosion, has the ability to resist thermal shock, have electrical resistance and of course be an excellent conductor of electricity because it contains moisture.

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Graphene as an additive for synthetic fibers used in bulletproof vests
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Graphene as an additive for synthetic fibers used in bulletproof vests

There are several types of bulletproof vests that, according to their composition, stop different types of projectiles and are organized by levels, but as the level increases they become heavier because of the reinforcements needed.

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Use of graphite electrodes for electrical grounding in industrial processes
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Use of graphite electrodes for electrical grounding in industrial processes

Graphite electrodes are used for physical ground because they are excellent conductors of electrical currents and have a cylindrical body which is made of graphite and a nipple which is the element where it is connected to resist high temperatures.

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Drilling muds: graphite as a lubricant additive
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Drilling muds: graphite as a lubricant additive

Drilling muds are used for the excavation and extraction of minerals, oil and gas in subway deposits. By adding graphite to the mix, a lubricating mud is obtained that reduces the friction on the drilling lances, thus increasing their life and allowing the extraction of minerals at greater depths.

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What qualities does carbon fiber have?
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What qualities does carbon fiber have?

Carbon fiber is widely used in the field of aeronautics, sports, automotive, etc.; due to its main qualities such as hardness and lightness. However, as the years go by, the manufacturing costs have been reduced and more and more we can find this material in everyday objects.

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PVD: Increasing productivity with graphite suspensions
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PVD: Increasing productivity with graphite suspensions

Physical vapor deposition is a method that places thin films or coatings on surfaces by solidifying the material in a high vacuum. In doing so, it ensures that no chemical reactions that could compromise the work being done are triggered at the time of working.

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Uses of graphite according to its type
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Uses of graphite according to its type

Graphite and its uses are very versatile, as it can be natural or synthetic; it has a shiny black color. It is a refractory element, a conductor of electricity and heat, resistant to thermal shocks, etc.

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Graphene batteries: uses and characteristics of this new technology
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Graphene batteries: uses and characteristics of this new technology

The characteristics and properties of graphene batteries have made this material to be related to the future for revolutionizing the performance and lifetime of, among other things, batteries.

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Graphite powder: breaking, milling or micronizing and classification processes
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Graphite powder: breaking, milling or micronizing and classification processes

Graphite powder has multiple properties, as it is used to improve different processes or increase productivity in several industries. It is important to mention that it is a very complete element.

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Graphite is a non-metallic mineral, discover its advantages for general industry
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Graphite is a non-metallic mineral, discover its advantages for general industry

The properties of graphite are exploited by using it in the railway industry, agricultural machinery and other industries as a natural lubricant to prevent wear between parts and improve their performance. Unlike the metallurgical industry, which uses it as a refractory element and thus increases thermal shock.

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Where is graphite extracted from? Find out more here!
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Where is graphite extracted from? Find out more here!

Knowing how graphite is obtained helps us to understand the value of this element in different industries. Since, its use is indispensable to increase productivity in different processes and machinery.

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Graphene: What is it and what does it work for?
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Graphene: What is it and what does it work for?

Graphene is a very resistant material that has a myriad of uses, which depending on the industry provides different types of benefits and properties.

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Brake pads, graphite as a basic element for their development
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Brake pads, graphite as a basic element for their development

Break pads are indispensable for a correct automotive braking or in different machines.

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Carbon brushes for electric motors: indispensable for the operation of motors and equipments
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Carbon brushes for electric motors: indispensable for the operation of motors and equipments

Carbon brushes for electric motors are essential for the correct operation of these, as they create the electrical connection between the two main components; the fixed part and the rotor.

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Importance of the slip ring motor and why it requires graphite components
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Importance of the slip ring motor and why it requires graphite components

The working principle of the slip ring motor is a rotor motor, which has a motorized system which lifts carbon or graphite brushes. This process helps the system to connect the circuit that has the rotor to operate.

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Centrifugal casting: what it is and how graphite is used in this process
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Centrifugal casting: what it is and how graphite is used in this process

Centrigual casting is a process where the metal is placed in a liquid state in a rotating container and expelled in direction of the mold.

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Advantages of graphite inserts for metal bushings
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Advantages of graphite inserts for metal bushings

The bronze bushings and the porosities they have, are made so that they can be in contact with the graphite and in turn have the optimum development. With this, it is possible to avoid the wear in the pieces; because it helps the rotation of the shaft in the machines, resisting the impact and the corrosion that this generates.

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Learn about the advantages of graphite-based lubricants, release agents and suspensions
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Learn about the advantages of graphite-based lubricants, release agents and suspensions

Graphite release agents and lubricants are designed to be applied in metal molds where different materials are cast to create various parts. This results in alloys with homogeneous surfaces, high precision edges and improved mechanical properties. It prevents the molded product from sticking to the structure.

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Graphite solutions for metal forging
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Graphite solutions for metal forging

Graphite lubricants are essential for metal forging. Among others, they increase the quality and safety of the forging process.

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Ways to take advantage of graphite in agricultural machinery
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Ways to take advantage of graphite in agricultural machinery

There are numerous types of agricultural machinery, dedicated to different tasks. In this case we will discuss how graphite lubricants have advantages over other traditional products for the lubrication and maintenance of such equipment.

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Importance of graphite as a mold for exothermic welding
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Importance of graphite as a mold for exothermic welding

Exothermic welding uses the high temperatures generated as a result of the reaction of materials to join different materials.

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Graphite applications in the metallurgical industry
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Graphite applications in the metallurgical industry

The development of the metallurgical industry is vital for the economy of our country since it converts raw material, product of mining extraction or scrap and transforms these elements to give them new life.

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Metal sintering process and the use of graphite molds
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Metal sintering process and the use of graphite molds

Starting from powders of different materials as raw materials, these are compacted into molds. Some commonly used materials include tungsten, molybdenum, diamond powder, ceramics and metal powders.  After the compaction process, the parts are subjected to high temperatures to achieve a fusion of the materials.

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Why are graphite electrodes indispensable for electric arc furnaces?
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Why are graphite electrodes indispensable for electric arc furnaces?

Graphite electrodes possess high electrical conductivity and have the high temperature resistance of carbon. Because of this, graphite electrodes have established themselves as the standard for melting in electric arc furnaces.

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Railroads: graphite as an indispensable element
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Railroads: graphite as an indispensable element

Lubricants based on graphite, as well as in powder form, are used in the joints of railway cars or directly applied to the wheels. These lubricants are also used as lubricants for tractor trucks and different types of machinery.

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Heat treatment: role or carbon and graphite products
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Heat treatment: role or carbon and graphite products

Heat treatments are processes of heating metals or alloys in solid state to defined temperatures. Afterwards, cooling is performed at a certain rate to raise the properties in chemical and physical composition, which increase their mechanical strength.

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Float glass: graphite elements assisting in this process
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Float glass: graphite elements assisting in this process

In the float glass industry, it is very common to work with high temperatures, however, not all materials can withstand it. Therefore, graphite is the ideal element for moten and hot glass manipulation.

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Metalworking industry: main uses of graphite
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Metalworking industry: main uses of graphite

The importance of the metal-mechanic industry, lies in the processes it performs; since it is one of the most traditional economic activities in Mexico. In addition, it is a key piece for the development, modernization and progress in all industries, since it creates the parts that will be used to manufacture products for daily use.

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Industrial applications: how graphite is used in different sectors
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Industrial applications: how graphite is used in different sectors

Graphite is a mineral of natural or synthetic origin that has the properties of being soft, stable, odorless and non-toxic. On the other hand, here we list its main benefits.

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Industrial Processes: Graphite as an indispensable element for aluminum production
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Industrial Processes: Graphite as an indispensable element for aluminum production

The aluminum industry requires graphite for the realization of different processes in order to transform its raw material into functional objects. Here is a list of some of the steps that require the use of graphite.

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Types of lubricants and their applications according to industry
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Types of lubricants and their applications according to industry

There are several types of lubricants, however, all of them fulfill the function of reducing friction in machinery depending on the industry. As a consequence, they guarantee a good performance and a long service life of the machinery.

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EDM, the importance of graphite as an electrode
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EDM, the importance of graphite as an electrode

EDM or electron discharge machining, is a process for the manufacture of molds and parts in various industries, as it increases productivity and reduces the number of operations to generate a product. It is a very precise technique, with good to excellent surface finishes and process repeatability.

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What is a centrifugal pump: graphite elements that compose it and main uses
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What is a centrifugal pump: graphite elements that compose it and main uses

The rotodynamic pump or better known as centrifugal pump, is a rotary type pump and currently the most used in the industry for fluid handling. These pumps have countless uses in different industries, including transforming the mechanical energy of the pump into the kinetic energy of a fluid.

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Carbon felts: indispensable element for thermal insulation
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Carbon felts: indispensable element for thermal insulation

Carbon felts are structures or fibers of carbon, or carbonized or graphitized material, which are used as a means of insulation in induction or vacuum resistance furnaces.

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Carbon brushes: relevance in different industries
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Carbon brushes: relevance in different industries

Carbon brushes are fundamental parts of any electric motor, since they provide the electrical connection between the rotating part (rotor) and its coils, thus creating a magnetic field with its fixed counterpart (stator), so we set ourselves the task of understanding what they are, what are the types of carbon brushes and their importance in the industry.

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Anthracite: everything you need to know about this material
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Anthracite: everything you need to know about this material

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Graphite: Properties and characteristics
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Graphite: Properties and characteristics

In the current era, graphite has become an indispensable consumable for industries, as it integrates properties that could only be found in metals and at the same time possesses characteristics of non-metallic objects.

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Graphitized grease: general applications and major uses
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Graphitized grease: general applications and major uses

Graphitized grease is composed of a high percentage of graphite, calcium soaps and highly refined minerals, with a balance between sodium thickener, additives and antifriction agents. It has a smooth, shiny, black texture.

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Natural graphite: what it is and its main uses
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Natural graphite: what it is and its main uses

Natural graphite is a soft, gray to black mineral, crystallizes in a hexagonal system, heat resistant and is an excellent conductor of electricity. It is compressible and malleable, in nature it is found in small hexagonal crystals in the form of compacted, earthy, flaky, spherical aggregates.

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Petroleum coke: properties and importance in the industry
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Petroleum coke: properties and importance in the industry

Coke, commonly known as "bottom of the barrel", is the result of petroleum refining. It has a carbonaceous appearance, consisting of 85% carbon, 10% volatiles and 5% sulfur.

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What is pet coke and what types of pet 'coke are there?
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What is pet coke and what types of pet 'coke are there?

Petroleom has multiple derivatives that are integrated into industries to improve and ensure processes, one of the most used is coke. Therefore, below we will explain what coke is and why it is positioned as an option for industrial processes of various types.

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Carbon graphite: what it is, importance and uses
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Carbon graphite: what it is, importance and uses

Minerals are elements widely used in everyday life. Their properties are very diverse and they have applications in different processes and industries. Carbon graphite, or just graphite, is a very important element that stands out among others and has become the solution to problems within industry.

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Graphite Crucible, everything you need to know
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Graphite Crucible, everything you need to know

There are different types of crucibles, created from a variety of materials such as porcelain, silicon carbide and ceramic. However, graphite crucibles stand out in the handling of molten material due to their non-stick properties, among others.

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Graphite electrodes: what are they used for?
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Graphite electrodes: what are they used for?

The foundry industry uses graphite for its heat-resistant properties, non-stick properties and other characteristics. Graphite composite electrodes are another of the most useful applications of graphite.

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Graphite types: properties of natural and synthetic graphites
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Graphite types: properties of natural and synthetic graphites

Graphite is a very special mineral, as it is considered to be almost pure carbon. As we know, carbon can occur in the form of diamond, chaoite and lonsdaleite, but also as graphite.

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Types of mechanical seals, carbon and graphite seal faces
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Types of mechanical seals, carbon and graphite seal faces

Mechanical seals are very important elements in industry because they keep machines running and prevent fluid leakage, which can put processes, installations and even personnel at risk. Choosing the right seal is of vital importance. In the industry there are different types of mechanical seals according to their characteristics, construction, applications, among other elements.

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Mechanical seals: what they are and what they are used for
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Mechanical seals: what they are and what they are used for

Fluid leaks in industry represent a serious problem, because they stop entire production lines. They can also cause costly damage and losses, not to mention the risk to those in contact with the affected equipment. To avoid this type of problem there are components, such as mechanical seals, that are the perfect solution.

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Graphite powder, characteristics and functions
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Graphite powder, characteristics and functions

Graphite is a mineral element with very particular characteristics. It is a form of pure carbon, as its fixed carbon content ranges from 75-100% depending on its natural or synthetic origin.

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Uses of graphite and its importance in industry
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Uses of graphite and its importance in industry

Graphite is extracted from natural deposits, but can also be created artificially. In this topic, the main producers of graphite worldwide are China, India and Brazil. In Mexico, the only graphite producing state is Sonora.

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